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Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. [99], In Victorian England, Goethe exerted a profound influence on George Eliot, whose partner George Henry Lewes wrote a Life of Goethe. Bottrop i W., W. Postberg, 1938 (OCoLC)647618212 Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance. The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was completed in stages. (82 évesen) Weimar: Sírhely: Weimarer Fürstengruft: Nemzetiség: német: Szülei: Johann Caspar Goethe és Catharina Elisabeth Textor: Házastársa : Christiane Vulpius: Gyermekei: August von Goethe: P In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. Title: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe und die Romantik Johann Wolfgang von Goethe "Wenn du eine weise Antwort verlangst, musst du vernünftig fragen." Throughout his life Goethe was interested in a variety of studies and pursuits. His conversations and various shared undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. 8. The mighty brow seemed yet to harbour thoughts. Johann reflected, "There is nothing more charming to see than a mother with her child in her arms, and there is nothing more venerable than a mother among a number of her children. His Faust, though eminently stageworthy when suitably edited, is also Europe’s greatest long poem since John Milton’s Paradise Lost, if not since Dante’s The Divine Comedy. The outer shape of the work's plot is widely taken over from what Goethe experienced during his Wetzlar time with Charlotte Buff (1753–1828)[16] and her fiancé, Johann Christian Kestner (1741–1800),[16] as well as from the suicide of the author's friend Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem (1747–1772); in it, Goethe made a desperate passion of what was in reality a hearty and relaxed friendship. [38] He wrote several works on morphology, and colour theory. [89][88] Although often requested to write poems arousing nationalist passions, Goethe would always decline. But that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours—of that, I say, I am not a little proud, and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. "Yes", answered Goethe, "... but what your pupil already accomplishes, bears the same relation to the Mozart of that time that the cultivated talk of a grown-up person bears to the prattle of a child. [72] Like Lessing and Herder, in many respects, Goethe was a devoted Spinozist. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), der größte deutsche Dichter und Denker, war ein Universalgenie. His father, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710–82), the son of a wealthy tailor-turned-innkeeper, was a man of leisure who lived on his inherited fortune and devoted himself, after studying law in Leipzig and Strasbourg and touring Italy, France, and the Low Countries, to collecting books and paintings and to the education of his children. In April 1770, Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies at the University of Strasbourg. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again. Nachher bekommt ihr einige Fragen zum Gesagtem. His emotional state became hectic, and his health gave way—he may have suffered an attack of tuberculosis—and in September 1768 he returned home to Frankfurt without a degree. "[107][108] Goethe's Naturanschauer is in many ways a sequel to Diderot's interprète de la nature. Der »Dichterfürst« war zudem Staatsmann und beeinflusste die Kunst seiner Zeit. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement. But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. At the end of August 1771, Goethe acquired the academic degree of the Lizenziat (Licentia docendi) in Frankfurt and established a small legal practice. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. Reluctantly and with some delay, Goethe followed his father’s prescription, although he did not complete the final stages until some years after his father’s death. "[63], Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. [19][20], In 1776, Goethe formed a close relationship to Charlotte von Stein, an older, married woman. Where did Johann Wolfgang von Goethe study law in 1765-1768? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe (1836). For Goethe, his first ten years at Weimar could well be described as a garnering of a degree and range of experience which perhaps could be achieved in no other way. Some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. phil. Goetha přitahovala anglická literatura, zejména dílo Shakespearovo, které mu zosobňovalo ideál tvůrčí svobody. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the rare giants of world literature. Was wisst ihr über diese literarische The university there had been the centre of Germany’s literary revival over the previous 40 years. Jeho slova, která pronesl po návratu z koaličních válek proti francouzské koaliční armádě, se stala památná. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Der Zauberlehrling - … Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. These include Hippocrates' "Art is long, life is short", which is echoed in Goethe's Faust and Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. [105] He said in Scientific Studies: We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. In camera de studiu a lui Faust, cainele se transforma in Mephisto. George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [Kultur] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture? Český-jazyk.cz - ČTENÁŘSKÝ DENÍK - výběr z děl od spisovatele: Johann Wolfgang Goethe “Goethe's Criticisms, Reflections, and Maxims” 55 Copy quote. Omissions? ("Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom?"). 3. Thus Goethe's journey had something of the nature of a pilgrimage to it. He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature....What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price. Turner. Mladý Goethe se učil řecky, latinsky, hebrejsky, francouzsky, anglicky, a italsky. [46], In 1810, Goethe published his Theory of Colours, which he considered his most important work. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, W. B. Rönnfeldt (1898*). On 13 October, Napoleon's army invaded the town. [107], Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. 2. edition. said Zelter. [82] At the time of the French Revolution, he thought the enthusiasm of the students and professors to be a perversion of their energy and remained skeptical of the ability of the masses to govern. 1999 wurde er in die Leibniz-Sozietät gewählt. In 1821 Goethe's friend Carl Friedrich Zelter introduced him to the 12-year-old Felix Mendelssohn. Vol. His father had made a similar journey during his own youth, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip. "[49] In this, he anticipated Ewald Hering's opponent colour theory (1872).[50]. The conductor was Franz Liszt, who chose the date 28 August in honour of Goethe, who was born on 28 August 1749. [6] Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. August and Ottilie had three children: Walther, Freiherr von Goethe (1818–1885), Wolfgang, Freiherr von Goethe [de] (1820–1883) and Alma von Goethe [de] (1827–1844). Jeho otec /císařský rada/ se velmi svědomitě staral o výchovu a vzdělání svého syna. The nobility and the grand and petty sovereigns who figured so much in Goethe’s later life had no part in his early experiences: he was a town child from a rich family in an essentially middle-class world. In 1779, Goethe took on the War Commission of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in addition to the Mines and Highways commissions. Novalis, himself a geologist and mining engineer, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time and "epoch-making in the history of physics", writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the metamorphosis of plants and of insects were indications and proofs "that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work"; and that Goethe would be surpassed "but only in the way in which the ancients can be surpassed, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem". The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. [98] She praised Goethe as possessing "the chief characteristics of the German genius" and uniting "all that distinguishes the German mind. For other uses, see, 18th/19th-century German writer, artist, and politician, In 1998, both of these sites, together with nine others, were designated a, Catharina was the daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, sheriff (. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, (born August 28, 1749, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died March 22, 1832, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? A perfect man lay in great beauty before me; and the rapture the sight caused me made me forget for a moment that the immortal spirit had left such an abode. Dobře znal i lteraturu v těchto jazycích psanou. [citation needed], To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the conception of Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years (the continuation of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship), the idyll of Hermann and Dorothea, the Roman Elegies and the verse drama The Natural Daughter. Operele sale au rămas la fel de pătrunzătoare ca în tinereţe, dovedind un real talent şi o minte care refuza să îmbătrânească. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe[a] (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s father, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710–82), was a man of leisure who lived on an inherited fortune. He said he "turned reality into poetry but his friends thought poetry should be turned into reality and the poem imitated." Indeed, Werther is often considered to be the "spark" which ignited the movement, and can arguably be called the world's first "best-seller." In 1774 he wrote the book which would bring him worldwide fame, The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. V letech 1765-68 studoval v Lipsku práva. 1749 ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. Stretched upon his back, he reposed as if asleep; profound peace and security reigned in the features of his sublimely noble countenance. Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional. Schopenhauer cited Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Don Quixote. [64][65][66] He was one of the central figures in a great flowering of a highly influential Neo-Spinozism[67][68][69] which occurred in German philosophy and literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, and the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, and then of the 'Aeneid' and Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'. In May 1772 he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", "Divide and rule, a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are often paraphrased. He was against this reading of poetry. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. [51] In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological. He fell in love with the daughter of an innkeeper, Käthchen Schönkopf, but she preferred someone more solid, a lawyer who eventually became deputy burgomaster of Leipzig. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe se narodil v dobře situované a vážené rodině ve Frankfurtu n. M. Studoval v Lipsku a Strasbourgu, kde se potkal s J. G. Hezdrem, filozofem, spisovatelem, literárním vědcem, s nímž stál u zrodu hnutí Sturm und Drang (Bouře a vzdor). In late 1792, Goethe took part in the Battle of Valmy against revolutionary France, assisting Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach during the failed invasion of France. August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. In 1765, therefore, Goethe left home to study law in Leipzig. In 1794, Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship; they had previously had only a mutually wary relationship ever since first becoming acquainted in 1788. Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77). Die Romantik BIOGRAFIE Der Erlkönig Notiere mit! She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled.[21]. [83] Goethe sympathized with the American Revolution and later wrote a poem in which he declared "America, you're better off than our continent, the old. Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble highwayman from the German Peasants' War. Das „von“ erhält er, als er 1782 geadelt wird. [7] All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages. The French "spoon guards", the least disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house: The 'spoon guards' had broken in, they had drunk wine, made a great uproar and called for the master of the house. Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night... Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck." Karl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: Goethes Briefe. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust Part One, Elective Affinities, the West-Eastern Diwan (a collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez), his autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From My Life: Poetry and Truth) which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his Italian Journey, and a series of treatises on art. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [100] Eliot presented Goethe as "eminently the man who helps us to rise to a lofty point of observation" and praised his "large tolerance", which "quietly follows the stream of fact and of life" without passing moral judgments. "[24], After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. Goethe's journey to the Italian peninsula and Sicily from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance in his aesthetic and philosophical development. "[84][85] He did not join in the anti-Napoleonic mood of 1812, and he distrusted the strident nationalism which started to be expressed. 1: Briefe der Jahre 1764–1786. Seine Eltern Johann Caspar Goethe und Catharina Elisabeth Goethe, welche eine geborene Textor war, stammten beide aus gutem Hause, seine Mutter entstammte sogar einer alten Patrizierfamilie. [107][108] Both Diderot and Goethe exhibited a repugnance towards the mathematical interpretation of nature; both perceived the universe as dynamic and in constant flux; both saw "art and science as compatible disciplines linked by common imaginative processes"; and both grasped "the unconscious impulses underlying mental creation in all forms. Douglas Miller, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, "Goethe und Carl August – Freundschaft und Politik", "The auto-biography of Goethe. Updates? He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of colours and early work on evolution and linguistics. In the literary culture of the German-speaking countries, he has had so dominant a position that, since the end of the 18th century, his writings have been described as “classical.” In a European perspective he appears as the central and unsurpassed representative of the Romantic movement, broadly understood. He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level". Goethe finished Faust Part Two in the year of his death, and the work was published posthumously. Goethe was vehemently opposed to Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive rational description of a wide variety of colour phenomena. 8. "And yet you heard Mozart in his seventh year at Frankfurt?" Rüdiger Bernhardt lehrte neuere und neueste deutsche sowie skandinavische Literatur an Universitäten des In- und Auslandes. They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, od roku 1782 von Goethe (28. srpna 1749 Frankfurt nad Mohanem – 22. března 1832 Výmar, Sasko-výmarské vévodství), byl německý básník, prozaik, dramatik a politik.. Narodil se ve svobodném říšském městě Frankfurtu nad Mohanem jako syn velmi zámožné rodiny. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, (born August 28, 1749, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died March 22, 1832, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German … The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels ever written,[5][c] while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, and Shakespeare). trans. Schuler.[11]. (More light! [108], His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. [104] However, he was critical of Bacon's inductive method and approach based on pure classification. Another emotional factor in the poet’s childhood that may have affected his later development was a love-hate relationship with a younger brother, who died in 1759 at age six: Goethe’s later relationships with literary contemporaries were ambiguous, though he nonetheless described them as “brothers,” and he was repelled by literary and artistic representations of death. Genre/Form: Academic theses: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Plagens, Hermann. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. Goethe also received lessons in dancing, riding and fencing. [45], Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Torricelli. Dieses Vermögen ermöglichte auch seinem Sohn ein Leben ohne finanzielle Schwierigkeiten. [31], The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. Frederick drew aside the sheet, and I was astonished at the divine magnificence of the limbs. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is perhaps best known for The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), the first novel of the Sturm und Drang movement, and for Faust (Part I, 1808; Part II, 1832), a play about a man who sells his soul to the Devil that is sometimes considered Germany’s greatest contribution to world literature. [62] According to Nietzsche, Goethe had "a kind of almost joyous and trusting fatalism" that has "faith that only in the totality everything redeems itself and appears good and justified. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. He could be said to stand in the same relation to the culture of the era that began with the Enlightenment and continues to the present day as William Shakespeare does to the culture of the Renaissance and Dante to the culture of the High Middle Ages. [15] Several of his poems, like "Willkommen und Abschied", "Sesenheimer Lieder" and "Heidenröslein", originate from this time. His other compositions inspired by Goethe include the overture Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Op. The novel remains in print in dozens of languages and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, an obsessive figure driven to despair and destruction by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype.

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